This post is for clarifying several points about Python package and environment management.

• pip vs. conda?
• virtualenv vs. conda env?
• How to choose the package and environment tools for Python development?

## pip vs. conda

### Difference 1

pip is a Python package manager.

conda is a language-agnostic cross-platform environment manager.

Package management and environment management are two different things. So pip and conda are different things and do not compete with each other.

Pip installs Python software packaged as wheels or source distributions. Source distributions may require that the system have compatible compilers, and possibly libraries, installed before invoking pip to succeed.

Conda packages are binaries. There is never a need to have compilers available to install them. Additionally conda packages are not limited to Python software. They may also contain C or C++ libraries, R packages or any other software.

Before using pip, a Python interpreter must be installed via a system package manager or by downloading and running an installer. Conda on the other hand can install Python packages as well as the Python interpreter directly.

### Difference 2

conda has the ability to create isolated environments, pip needs virtualenv or venv to create a virtual environment.

(poetry is a tool that wraps pip and virtualenv together and is recommended for application development. Will discuss in later sections.)

### Difference 3

When installing packages, pip installs dependencies in a recursive, serial loop. No effort is made to ensure that the dependencies of all packages are fulfilled simultaneously. This can lead to environments that are broken in subtle ways, if packages installed earlier in the order have incompatible dependency versions relative to packages installed later in the order. In contrast, conda uses a satisfiability (SAT) solver to verify that all requirements of all packages installed in an environment are met. This check can take extra time but helps prevent the creation of broken environments. As long as package metadata about dependencies is correct, conda will predictably produce working environments.

Now we know the difference between pip and conda, but choosing which to use also depends on the way they work with virtual environments. I will discuss that in later sections. Now let’s understand some basics how Python installs pacakges, and check the resulting package locations after pip install and conda install.

## Where does Python install packages (mac system Python, DON’T DO THIS)

By default, without a virtual environment, all python and pip commands will use the default executables, usually your system Python install.

It is strongly recommended to keep your system Python clean of unnecessary site packages by using virtual environments.

Otherwise, over time, you will add lots of things to your system packages and things might conflict and cause problems. Using an isolated environment for each project ensures easy reproducability and reduced conflict.

DO NOT install into your global Python interpreter! ALWAYS use an environment when developing locally!

To see what directories are being used to search for packages, invoke the site module directly by running python -m site outside virtual environments:

$python -m site sys.path = [ '<current_dir>', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python27.zip', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/plat-darwin', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/plat-mac', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/plat-mac/lib-scriptpackages', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/lib-tk', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/lib-old', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/lib-dynload', '/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python/PyObjC', ] USER_BASE: '/Users/<username>/Library/Python/2.7' (doesn't exist) USER_SITE: '/Users/<username>/Library/Python/2.7/lib/python/site-packages' (doesn't exist) ENABLE_USER_SITE: True  The Python at /System/Library/Frameworks/... is MacOS’s pre-installed Python. Run pip show <package_name> to see where it’s installed. For system Python, it’s something like: $ pip show setuptools

Name: setuptools
Version: 41.0.1
Summary: Easily download, build, install, upgrade, and uninstall Python packages
Home-page: https://github.com/pypa/setuptools
Author: Python Packaging Authority
Author-email: distutils-sig@python.org
License: UNKNOWN
Location: /System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python
Requires:
Required-by:


You can also run pip list -v to check install locations.

## pip install vs. conda install: where do they install the packages

If you run pip install in a virtual environment, by default it will install into

<project_root>/<virtualenv_name>/lib/<python_ver>/site-packages/


For conda, it always installs packages into a conda environment. Without an activated conda environment, conda install will install into the base conda environment. With a conda environment, e.g. testenv activated, by default it installs to

/home/<user>/anaconda3/envs/testenv/


(conda envs are located in a centralized path by default. Later I will mention the pros and cons of this approach.)

We can use conda list to check the path of the current environment and the packages installed in it.

Later I will compare the two and choose my preferred way to manage packages and environments.

## virtualenv vs conda env

With pip vs. conda out of the way, a more valid comparison is virtualenv vs. conda environments. When to use which? To answer that, we need to really understand what virtual environment is and how they achieve isolation.

### Always use a virtual environment!

A virtual environment is a directory that contains its own installation of Python and its own set of libraries (site packages). It solves problems such as conflicting requirements for two applications by having an isolated environment for each application.

### How does virtualenv achieve isolation

Notice the difference between the first path in $PATH before and after the activation: $ echo $PATH /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:$ source env/bin/activate
(env) $echo$PATH
/Users/<username>/<project>/venv/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:


This raises the following questions:

• What’s the difference between these two executables anyway?
• How is the virtual environment’s Python executable able to use something other than the system’s site-packages?

This can be explained by how Python starts up and where it is located on the system. There actually isn’t any difference between these two Python executables. It’s their directory locations that matter.

When Python is starting up, it looks at the path of its binary. In a virtual environment, it is actually just a copy of, or symlink to, your system’s Python binary. It then sets the location of sys.prefix and sys.exec_prefix based on this location, omitting the bin portion of the path.

The path located in sys.prefix is then used for locating the site-packages directory by searching the relative path lib/pythonX.X/site-packages/, where X.X is the version of Python you’re using.

In our example, the binary is located at

/Users/<username>/<project>/venv/bin


which means sys.prefix would be

/Users/<username>/<project>/venv/


and therefore the site-packages directory used would be

/Users/<username>/<project>/venv/lib/pythonX.X/site-packages


Finally, this path is stored in the sys.path array, which contains all of the locations where a package can reside.

### Considerations for picking virtualenv or conda env

conda env can replace virtualenv, but there are some differences. There is a great answer from stackoverflow, I quote and arrange into the points below.

#### Where do the envs live: central vs. per-project

By default conda prefers to manage a list of environments for you in a central location, i.e.

/home/<user>/anaconda3/envs/


whereas virtualenv makes a folder in the current directory.

• conda (centralized) makes sense if you are e.g. doing machine learning and just have a couple of broad environments that you use across many projects and want to jump into them from anywhere.
• virtualenv (per project folder) makes sense if you are doing projects that have completely different sets of lib requirements that really belong more to the project itself.

#### Environment size (favors virtualenv)

The empty environment that Conda creates is about 122MB whereas the virtualenv’s is about 12MB, so that’s another reason you may prefer not to scatter Conda environments around everywhere.

#### Prefix for shell display (favors virtualenv)

Finally, another superficial indication that conda prefers its centralized envs is that (again, by default) if you do create a conda env in your own project folder and activate it the name prefix that appears in your shell is the (way too long) absolute path to the folder. You can fix that by giving it a name, but virtualenv does the right thing by default.

### Weird question of mine: what if virtualenv and conda env are both activated?

I did this experiment by activating one before the other and check which python, and guess what, the result is that the active environment is whichever environment activated last!

### Some tips

• Avoid using pip by itself. Using python -m pip will always guarantee you are using the pip associated with that specific python being called, instead of potentially calling a pip associated with a different python.
• Sometimes there is a pip3 to go with python3 to differentiate python 2 executables python/pip.
• Sometimes Linux distributions require you to install virtualenv as a separate package. For example sudo apt install python3-virtualenv.
• You should never copy or move around virtual environments. Always create new ones. Ignore the virtual environment directories from repositories. For example, .gitignore them.

## pyenv

pyenv is a mature tool for installing and managing multiple Python versions on macOS. You can install it with brew. If you’re using Windows, you can use pyenv-win. After you’ve got pyenv installed, you can install multiple versions of Python into your Python environment with a few short commands:

$pyenv versions * system$ python --version
Python 2.7.10
$pyenv install 3.7.3 # This may take some time$ pyenv versions
* system
3.7.3


You can manage which Python you’d like to use in your current session, globally, or on a per-project basis as well. pyenv will make the python command point to whichever Python you specify. Note that none of these overrides the default system Python for other applications, so you’re safe to use them however they work best for you within your Python environment:

$pyenv global 3.7.3$ pyenv versions
system
* 3.7.3 (set by /Users/<username>/.pyenv/version)

$pyenv local 3.7.3$ pyenv versions
system
* 3.7.3 (set by /Users/<username>/myproj/.python-version)

$pyenv shell 3.7.3$ pyenv versions
system
* 3.7.3 (set by PYENV_VERSION environment variable)

$python --version Python 3.7.3  There is something called pyenv virtualenv. Install it with brew install pyenv-virtualenv and use it with pyenv virtualenv <python version> <project name>. // Create virtual environment$ pyenv virtualenv 3.7.3 my-env

// Activate virtual environment
$pyenv activate my-env // Exit virtual environment (my-env)$ pyenv deactivate

$pyenv virtualenv 3.7.3 proj1$ pyenv virtualenv 3.7.3 proj2
$cd /Users/<username>/proj1$ pyenv local proj1
(proj1)$cd ../proj2$ pyenv local proj2
(proj2)$pyenv versions system 3.7.3 3.7.3/envs/proj1 3.7.3/envs/proj2 proj1 * proj2 (set by /Users/<username>/proj2/.python-version)  It can set the default environment for a directory! This way you don’t have to remember which environment to use. But the caveat is that it has conda-like centralized envs. You can find them by the command pyenv virtualenvs. For more details, check out https://realpython.com/intro-to-pyenv/ and https://github.com/pyenv/pyenv-virtualenv. ## My setup 2020 Tools: • pyenv, virtualenv for library development. • poetry for application development. poetry wraps pip and virtualenv to provide a unified method for working with these environments. I use virtualenv instead of pyenv-virtualenv to explicitly have a folder for the virtual environment in the project directory because it is the clearest way for me to manage virtual environments for different projects. conda can be used for one-off experiments with broad machine learning environments. For a comparison of library vs. application development and more Python packaging considerations, check out this great article: The Packaging Gradient. Application packaging must not be confused with library packaging. Python is for both, but pip is for libraries. ### Quick intro to poetry Use poetry instead of pipenv for Python application development. pipenv is not actively issuing updates as of 2020. poetry addresses additional facets of package management, including creating and publishing your own packages. After installing poetry, you can use it to create a new project: $ poetry new myproj
Created package myproj in myproj
$ls myproj/ README.rst myproj pyproject.toml tests  Similarly to how pipenv creates the Pipfile, poetry creates a pyproject.toml file. This recent standard contains metadata about the project as well as dependency versions: # Config file [tool.poetry] name = "myproj" version = "0.1.0" description = "" authors = ["Logan Yang <logancyang@gmail.com>"] [tool.poetry.dependencies] python = "^3.7" [tool.poetry.dev-dependencies] pytest = "^3.0" [build-system] requires = ["poetry>=0.12"] build-backend = "poetry.masonry.api"  You can install packages with poetry add (or as development dependencies with poetry add –dev): $ poetry add requests
Using version ^2.22 for requests

Updating dependencies
Resolving dependencies... (0.2s)

Writing lock file

Package operations: 5 installs, 0 updates, 0 removals

- Installing certifi (2019.6.16)
- Installing chardet (3.0.4)
- Installing idna (2.8)
- Installing urllib3 (1.25.3)
- Installing requests (2.22.0)


poetry also maintains a lock file, and it has a benefit over pipenv because it keeps track of which packages are subdependencies. As a result, you can uninstall requests and its dependencies with poetry remove requests.